Culinary Exam Review Contaminants • Chemical o Toxic metals (lead, copper, brass, zinc) o Chemicals (cleaning products, polish, lubricants, sanitizers) o Pesricides • Physical: glass, metal, nail polish • Biological o Seafood toxins o Plant toxins o Fungal toxins o Pathogens o Bacteria o Parasites o Viruses Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause illnesses (virus, bacteria, parasites and fungi) Pathogens need the following things to grow (FAT TOM): 1. Food: meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs 2. Acidity: pathogens grow best in food with little or no acid (pH between 4. -7. 5) 3. Temperature: pathogens grow well in the TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE (41-135 degrees F) 4. Time: After 4 hours, pathogens will grow to a level high enough to cause illness. • LAG PHASE: resting time when very little growth occurs • LOG PHASE: accelerated growth of bacteria • STATIONARY PHASE: lasts until bacteria begin to crowd others within their colony, creating competition for food, space and moisture, which allow bacteria to grow • DECLINE: bacteria die at an accelerated rate 5. Oxygen: Some need it and others don’t. 6.
Moisture: Pathogens require moisture. Amount available for this growth is called the water activity level (0. 0-1. 0). Need a water activity of 0. 85 to grow. **In order to prevent Foodborne illnesses, must control time and temperature** Intoxications and Infections • Intoxication: when bacteria produces toxins, a by-product of their life processes o Odorless and tasteless o Bacteria is not harmless, but the toxins poison the consumer o Even cooking with high temperatures can leave behind toxins o Proper food-handling techniques are required Infection: occurs when live pathogenic bacteria are ingested o Bacteria lives in consumer’s intestinal tract and causes illness o Can be destroyed by cooking foods at 165 or higher • Toxin-mediated infection: establish colonies in human intestinal tracts and produce toxins there o Has characteristics of both intoxication and infection o Particularly harmful to those with weak immune systems (children, elderly) VIRUSES • Leading Cause in Foodborne illnesses • They can survive refrigeration and freezing • They grow inside the person Can contaminate both food and water • Must minimize bare-hand contact with food in order to prevent • Can be killed at +176 degrees • Not affected pH, oxygen content and water activity • Need a HOST cell BACTERIA: • Leading cause of food borne illness • Controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone • Some produce toxins in food • Some can be beneficial for o Ingesting food and decomposing garbage o Making cheese and yogurt o PUTREFACTIVES: bacteria that spoils food, but does not make it unfit for consumption Spores: Bacteria that changes into a different form to prevent dying. • Commonly found in soil, also in meat products • Resists heat PARASITES • Cannot grow in food-must be in the meat of another animal • Use many animal as hosts • Can be found in the feces of people and animals • Contaminate food and water FUNGI • Spoil food-found in air, soil, plants, water and some food • Mold and yeast are examples Mold: • Spoil food and sometimes cause illness • Produce toxins • Grow in almost any condition (best in acidic food with low water activity) • Colder temps slow growth
Chapter #3 Toxic Metals • Lead-found in pewter • Cooper-cookware • Zinc-metal found in galvanized items • If food is stored or prepared with these metals, then it can result in toxic-metal poisoning Food Service Chemicals: • Store chemicals away from food, utensils and equipment • Follow manufacture’s directions when using chemicals • Label all containers • Use only lubricants that are made for food equipment Food Allergy: the body’s negative reaction to a particular food protein. • Most common allergens o Milk & dairy o Nuts o Eggs o Seafood Soy products • Symptoms: Itching round face, tightening of throat, wheezing/shortness of breathe, hives and swelling. • Make sure service staff does the following: o Describe dishes o Identify ingredients o Suggest simple menu items • Kitchen Staff: o Make sure no cross-contamination occurs o Don’t cook different types of food in the same fryer oil o Put food on surfaces that have touched allergens o Should rinse and sanitize all cookware o Wash hands Chapter #4: Ways foodhandlers can contaminate food: • Have a food-borne illness Have symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting or jaundice • Have wounds that contain pathogens • Touch anything that may contaminate their hands Chapter #5: The Flow of Food: • Purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, holding, cooking, reheating and serving Ways to prevent cross contamination: • Assign specific equipment to each type of food product • Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and utensils after each task • Prepare raw meat, seafood and poultry and ready to eat food at different times • Purchase ingredients that require minimal preparation
Ways to avoid time and temperature abuse: • Determine the best way to monitor time and temperature in your establishment • Make sure the establishment has the right thermometers in the right places • Employees regularly record temperatures • Develop a set of corrective actions General Thermometer Guidelines: • Keep thermometers clean • Calibrate regularly • Never use glass • Insert probe into the thickest part of the product Culinary Lecture: August 31, 2009 • Each year food borne pathogens cause: o 76 million human illnesses o 325,000 hospitalizations o 5,200 deaths $7-37 billion losses annually Most common microbial causes of food borne diseases: 1. Norovirus 2. Camplyobacter Species 3. Salmonella 4. Clostridium perfringes 5. Staphylococcus aureus 6. E. Coli 7. Shigella Definitions: • Food Infection: pathogens grow inside the intestine of a person, eating food contaminated by these pathogens. • Food Intoxication: eating food containing poisonous toxins that are produced by pathogens • Toxin Mediated Infection: eating food that contains pathogens, which grow in the intestine, producing toxins that cause illness. Case: a person that contracted a food borne illness after ingesting to food borne microorganisms, toxins or physical hazards in food. • Food borne Outbreak: two or more people contracting the same food born illness consuming the same foods. • Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF): supports rapid growth for microorganisms, has a pH of 4. 6 or higher, has a water activity of 0. 85 or higher (fish, poultry, meat and meat products, crustacean, dairy). • Contamination: any harmful substance in the food; often odorless and tasteless. • Spoiled: damaged to taste, aroma and appearance Microorganism |Type |Onset |Duration |Symptoms |Source |Prevention | |Norovirus |Infection |12-24 hrs |1-2days |Nausea, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, |Water, contaminated |Hygiene, cook food, | | | | | |jaundice |surfaces, raw foods |shellfish from approved| | | | | | | |sources | |Hepatitis A |Virus |7 weeks |1-2weeks |Sudden fever, jaundice |Shellfish, milk, |Approved food sources, | | | | | | |veggies |hygiene | |Staphylococcus Aureus |Intoxication. |1-7hrs |1-2days |Nausea, headache, change in blood |Skin, hair, nose, |Hygiene, proper | | |Bacterium, resists | | pressure & pulse rate |wounds, reheated foods,|refrigeration&reheating| | |freezing, low pH | | | |raw foods | | |Bacillus Cereus |Intoxication |30min-5hrs |6-15hrs |Nausea, cramps, diarrhea |Rice, meats, milk, |Time&temp, rapid | | | | | | |fish, soil |chilling, | |Salmonella |Infection |6-48hrs |1-2days |Fever, dehydration |Eggs, meat, pets |Avoid x-contamination, | | | | | | | |cook to 165, pasteurize| | | | | | | |eggs | |Clostridium Botulinum |Intoxication |12-48 hrs |1-10days |Vomit, double vision, paralysis, death |Food grown in soil, |Throw out dented cans, | | | | | | |salads, sausage |low pH, chill foods | Safe Handling of Food: Thawing Food: • In refrigerator at 41 degrees • Under running cold water less than 70 degrees • Microwave-immediate preceding cooking • Cooking process-reaching required internal temperature • Slaking-just before cooking (41 degree max temp) Rapid Chilling: • Methods o Ice bath o Ice paddle o Separate food into smaller portions to cool faster • 2 Stage Cooling Process • Danger zone (41-135 degrees) • Fastest reproduction of Microorganisms is at 70-125 degrees • Reheat or discard • Methods include an ice water bath, an ice paddle, or shallow pans on ice Heating and Reheating: Holding temperature: 135 degrees or higher • Reheating requirement: 165 degrees for 15 seconds, within two hours or it must be discarded. Cookies: • Smooth cookies: a little over-creamed (placed in the blender for too long) • Flat cookies-not enough flour • Brown and bitter tasting cookies: too much baking soda Top 10 Causes of Food-Borne Illnesses: 1. Failing to cool foods properly 2. Cross-contamination 3. Personal hygiene 4. Improper reheating 5. Improper hot holding 6. Mixing raw with cooked foods (custard pie w/ meringue (egg whites)) 7. Food from unapproved sources 8. Improper cleaning 9. Over prepping 10. Inadequate cooking Sensory Evaluation of Food: Sensory Experiences: Foods, smells, taste ( personal experiences (childhood, holidays, vacation, sickness). • Factors affecting perception of flavors o Temperature ? Warm temperatures offer the strongest taste ? Saltiness is perceived more when served very cold o Consistency ? Thicker items take longer to reach peak intensity… less intense flavor o Presence of contrasting tastes ? Enhances overall flavor o Presence of fats ? Too little: flavor compounds are not released efficiently ? Too much: coating of fat on the tongue interferes with the ability of taste receptors to perceive flavor compounds o Color ? Affects how consumer will perceive the food’s flavor before tasting ?
When color matches normal expectation… flavor intensifies Visual Evaluation: • Neatness/shine: definition of edges, identifiable components • Visual texture/definition/shape: amorphous or clearly defined, different shapes • Size and Volume: large, small, portion size, volume, critical to sale success • Cultural concept-cultural acceptance • Color-broad spectrum, natural and attractive looking, pleasing and balanced Aroma: • Aroma detection: pre-nasal or retro-nasal • Volatility: molecular weight, intermolecular binding, temperature • Aroma sensitivity is 10,000 times that of taste • Descriptors: o Ethereal: highly volatile (alcohol) o Floral: aroma of flowers Musky: animal gland sent o Camphoraceous: sharp, camphor-like o Putrid-decay o Sour-acidic o Pungent: hot/spicy, like pepper Threshold and Discrimination • High notes-citrus, herbs, spices… sharp, first flavors • Middle notes- meats, dairy and poultry… second wave of more subtle flavors • Low notes-mushrooms, beans (take a long time to detect)… most dominating lingering flavros • JND: Just noticeable difference • Aftertaste-something that lingers in your mouth • Roundness: good balance of flavorings and seasonings. • Flavor depth: whether the dish has a broad range of flavor notes • Temperature does have an impact on taste perception • Taste preceptors Cilia (white dots on tongue connected to the brain) o Tongue o Epiglottis (dangly thing) o Soft palette (roof of your mouth) Compromises to the perception of flavor • Age • Health • Smoking Traditional Taste Model: • Sweet, sour, bitter, salty and UMAMI • Umami: delicious, savory, meaty Touch: • Texture: resistance to the bite o Shear, tough, chewy, crunchy, crusty o Gluten, chewy (or flaky-little gluten development) o Cellulose, crunchy o Collagen, firmness • Mouth feel: o Smoothness, waxyness, dryness, crumbliness, flow The Flavor Pyramid: From the top: 1. Basic Tastes 2. Sensations 3. Textures 4. Aromas 5. Appearance 6. Emotions Stocks, Sauces and Soups: Definitions: Sauces: thickened liquid used to enhance the flavor or make other foods more palatable • Soups: hot or cold liquid preparation. Usually consumed with a spoon Stock: liquid derived from simmering bones, meat, vegetables and seasoning. • Made by simmering meat, bones and or vegetables, resulting in: o A: Hydrolysis of carbohydrates o B: Hydrolysis of proteins • Hydrolysis: use water and heat to break down protein and fibers. Flavor receptors are then able to pick up the different components Making a Stock: 1. Rinse, blanch or roast bones, meat. a. Blanch: bone particles, blood and other impurities are rinsed and removed. Submerge in water and bring to a boil, take out and place in cold water. 2. Add water and skim 3. Add mirepoix 4. Add Sachet 5.
Simmer x number of hours 6. Strain stock and skim fat 7. Chill 8. De-grease the Stock 9. Clarify (optional) Cooking Times: • Fish: 30-45 Minutes (if cooked too long, too much fish flavor, use a leaner fish bone) • Vegetables: 45-60 minutes (flavor components can evaporate if cooked too long) • Chicken: 4-6 hours (gets glue-y when cooked too long) • Beef/Veal: 6-8 hours Classic Sauce Construction • Liquid • Flavor Ingredients • Thickener Starch, flour and gletain as a Thickening Agent: • Flour and Water: White Wash • Equal parts flour and fat: Roux • Corn Starch and Water: Slurry • Roux: starch granules coated in fat (prevents sticking). White, blond, brown.
Dextrinization: starch breaks down and gives a nutty flavor. • Slurry: Creates a shine (visual appeal). Used in stir fry Gelatinization: • Starch+water+180degrees=gelatinization • Amylose: Straight chain and has the ability to bind itself to water • Amylopectin: branched • A gelatinized starch granule has increased in size • If temperature is reduced, then the it becomes thicker and more viscous • May need to add more liquid if too thick • Gelatinization: binds water to amylose • Three effects o Thickens soups and sauces o Give structure to baked goods o Softens vegetables Gelation: when starch-thickened sauce is cooled and it become thicker The Mother Sauces: 1. Bechamel: White roux and milk 2.
Veloute: Blond roux and white stock 3. Espagnole: Brown roux and brown stock 4. Hollandaise: clarified butter, egg yolk, and lemon juice 5. Tomato: tomatoes, flavorings and water Glace: • French term for glossy • Reduced fond/stock-thicker consistency as a stock, intense flavor and intense color • Pretty solid. Thicker because of the gelling property. • When the liquid starts to get cold, it really starts to thicken. Soup Classification: • Clear Soups o Broths o Consommes: add flavorful veggies to add more flavor. No fat and clear o Vegetable soup • Thickened Soups o Cream Soups o Chowders o Bisques o Potage/Puree Carbohydrates: Fruit and Vegetables: Vegetarianism: Increase in Vegetarianism in the US, especially women, and younger people • Implications for restaurants: need to offer opportunities and dishes for vegetarians. Food Production and Environment: • Less REAL ESTATE, RESOURCES, and POLLUTION • Food miles: eating local (Locavore) Classification • Fruit: Mostly desert, snack foods • Vegetable: plant food eaten along with meats fish or other parts of a meal. Classification of Vegetables: • Roots: beet, carrot, celery root, jicama, parsnip, radish, rutabaga, sweet potato, turnip • Tubers: ginger root, potatoes • Stems and Shoots: Fennel, asparagus, celery, kohlrabi • Flowers: artichoke, broccoli, and cauliflower • Fruits: avocado, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pepper, pumpkin, squash, and tomato. Seeds: beans, corn, lentils and peas • Leaves: Bok choy, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, chard, collards, parsley, romaine, spinach, watercress • Bulbs: chives, garlic, leek onion, shallot Composition: 1. Moisture 2. Air 3. Juice, turgor 4. Saccharides (mono, di and poly (starches)) • MONO: glucose, fructose, galactose • DI: sucrose, maltose, lactose • POLY: starch, amylase, cellulose 5. H-Cellulose: mature vegetables 6. Vitamins A, B2, C are found in leafy vegetables and tropical fruit 7. Minerals • Calcium-broccoli • Potassium-oranges, dried fruit • Iron-dried fruits 8. Fats and Proteins • Fat-olives • Protein-soybeans 9. Flavor Components Sulfur compounds-onions, garlic, cabbage, cauliflower • Esters, alcohols, Apples, bananas, oranges, peaches and strawberries Wilting and Humidity: • Low turgor causes wilting (e. g. spinach wilts faster than carrots because of low turgar and larger surface area for water evaporation) • Keep the moisture in it to keep desirable characteristics Pigments: Affected by time, temperature, pH and metals • Chlorophyll: bluish/olive green. Heat and pH sensitive (Acid(browns; base(green/mushy)(Heat makes the color darker) e. g. spinach • Carotenoids: yellow, orange, red. Heat and acidity stable. E. g. carrots • Anthoctanins: red/purple. pH sensitive (Acid(red, Base( blue; Metals/O2(off colors) e. g. red cabbage • Anthoxanthins: white-yellow. H sensitive (Alkali( brown). E. g. cauliflower Factors affecting pigments in fruits and veggies • Time • Temp: low temp ( less likely to react • pH • Metals: copper retains pigments Enzymatic Browning: • Polyphenoloxidase + Oxygen = Browning • Preventive action: Acidulation (suldites: dried fruits) Post Harvest Handling: • Harvesting/transporting: do in early morning because it is the coldest and wettest part of day • Receiving and letting it sit kills inventory and profit • Moisture o Leafy Vegetables rel. humidity > 95% o Fruits rel. humuduty~90% o Onions: rel humidity 65-70% • Temperatures o Apples, beans, sweet corn at 32-40 degrees F Leafy vegetables: 32 degrees F o Bananas and tomatoes: don’t refrigerate • Light: o Potatoes: store in dark space Carbohydrates: Doughs and Batters: Yeast Doughs: • Lean Dough: One pound flour, one half pound water, 1/3 oz salt, ? oz yeast… WITHOUT FAT • Rich Dough: Dome type of fat is placed in them… MORE MOISTURE, DENSITY, SOFTNESS • Types of Grains: wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice. • Germ: remain in the four; fat, enzymes, deteriorates quicker • Protein content: THE HIGHER THE PROTEIN CONTENT, THE HIGHER THE GLUTEN FORMING POTENTIAL o Cake Flour: 7. 5% Protein Content o Pastry Flour: 8-9% Protein Content o All Purpose Flour: 10. 5-11. 6% Protein Content Bread Flour: 13. 4% Protein Content o Rye Flour: 9. 4-16% Protein Content o Protein: leavening, volume, changes shape and structure Other Ingredients: • Water • Yeast o No leavening without yeast o Yeast is a living organism that can be killed with heat and salt • Salt o Flavors o Controls yeast growth to inhibit too much leavnening o Strengthens gluten strands • Do not want overall temp of dough to exceed 60 degrees Yeast Activity: • Killed at 138 degree F • Hydration 100-110 degrees F • Fermentation: 79-85 degrees F • If too high, rises too quickly and ferments Steps 1. Scaling: weighing ingredients • Add liquids • Add flour if dough is too soft Add water if dough is too stiff 2. Mixing 3. Kneading: • Forms gluten matrix • Makes dough smooth 4. Fermentation: • Best at 75 to 95F because yeast is killed at 138F • Process of stretching proteins and strengthening gluten strands • Unfermented dough is called green dough • Converts yeast to alcohol and CO2 • Complete when dough doubles in size and no linger springs back when pushed with fingers 5. Punching: • Eliminates air bubbles • Reactivates yeast cells • Evens out dough temperature • Relaxes gluten 6. Portioning 7. Rounding: stretch outside layer of gluten into a smooth coating to help hold in gas and make dough easier to shape 8.
Shaping/Forming: 9. Proofing: • Second fermentation: between 80 to 115F • Doubles in size and slowly springs back when pushed with fingers • Over-proofing: sour flavor, poor volume, paleness • Under-proofing: poor volume and texture 10. Baking: • 180F internal temperature for gelatinization • Oven-spring • Maillard browning • Coagulation of starch and protein at 160F • Melting of fats • Caramelization of sugars o Adds flavor and darkens at 320F o Only happens with DRY heat 11. Cooling Gluten Development • Important so that gases and leaveners don’t leave during fermentation, and rising can occur • Occurs only when dough is manipulated • Affected by Mixing time: over-mixing can break down gluten matrix o Fat content: high fat content inhibits gluten bonds formation • Firm breads require high protein content • Needs moisture o Water is common o Milk/cream can be used for texture, flavor, and nutritional value Leavening Agents: • Yeast • Chemical o Baking Soda: Acid activates (buttermilk, fruits, honey). Too much of it and it will turn food yellow, brown spots and soapy taste o Baking Powder: Double acting. Moisture at room temperature ( small bubbles. High heat( bubbles expand and protein/starches sets. o Baking Ammonia: decomposes to form CO2 and ammonia gas • Air • Steam Quick Breads: Production Methods: Muffin Method: Dry ingredients (mixed) + liquids (mixed)( blend • Creaming Method: Creaming (1: B + S(2: egg) + dry ingredients ( Blend • Biscuit method: Dry ingredients + fat (blend) + liquids (mix) • Common Mistakes: over-creaming/blending (mixing)( tunneling CHO & Lipids Pastries: • Desert-desirable. Very important aspect of the overall meal • Restaurant sales-plus sales • Need to adjust to healthy eating • Need variation: items that cannot be made at home… signature items Pastries: • Pastry: o Paste: mixture of flour, liquid and fat o Doughs and pastes o Flaky, tender and crisp because we use fat to coat the starch, which prevents gluten development • Pies: o Want to avoid gluten development o Flakey dough: larger fat particles o Mealy dough: smaller fat particles (less water) does not stick to your hand o Little to no sugar • Tarts: o Sweet dough-egg and sugar added Fat rolled in( Croissants, Danish and puff pastry • Cooked batter ( Pate a Choux • Fat cut in ( tart and pie dough Pastry Ingredients and Function: • Functional o Flour: Prevents gluten from sticking to each other o Fat: lipid o Egg: emulsification, richness, foam, gelling • Flavorings and fillings Fat incorporation in pastry: • Rolled in o Dough base o Shortening o Layering o Lamination: into sheets or layers Slight fermentation which helps minimally with the leavening • Direct: fat (shortening) incorporate with other ingredients Fat Chemistry: • Fatty Acid and triglyceride • Saturation/unsaturated fatty acids o Saturated ? Straightly aligned ? Can be more densely packed Unsaturated ? Kinked ? BETTER FOR HEALTH ? Turn rancid more ? Less stable ? Lower melting point • Hydrogenation: oils can be turned into solids (unsaturated into saturated fats) • Rancidity: if left in contact with enzymes and air Melting Point and Texture: • Alpha Crystals: random • Beta prime crystal: more ordered • Beta crystals (parallel rows) high melting point… more stable • Smoke point: when heated up, it starts to emit smoke o Oils with higher smoking points used for frying • Flash point: so hot that it starts burning Shortening • Advantages: o Slow to turn rancid o Wide melting point range o Higher overall melting point o Aerated Disadvantages o Trans fatty acids o Poor flavor o Waxy mouth-feel o Raises LDL o unhealthy Butter • Advantages o Flavor o Texture o It’s natural-no trans fats o Prevents gluten from sticking to each other • Disadvantages o Turns rancid easily o Low melting o Low overall melting point range o Raises LDL level in blood Sweeteners: • Sweetening-very important • Moisture retention-hydroscopic • Delay gelatinization-lighter, fluffier texture • Browning • Volume/bulk-heavier batter Eggs: • Aeration/Volume • Emulsification • Stability/matrix-once protein coagulates, stays in place • Gelling Pie (Tart) Production: • NO GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT • Resting: no hands Want low temp-warmer pie dough is likely to develop gluten • Blind Baking: pre gelatinize your dough and make tiny holes to steam can escape Pies and Pastries In-Class Lecture: • Puff pastry: layers created by trapped air, which turned into steam. Reaches a certain temperature and gelatinizes. Malliard browning also occurs • Keep a moist barrier over a good to stop browning • Berry pie can use tapioca as a thickener… traps in the fruit • To know if pie has fully baked: visual browning, bubbling (starch has gelatinize) Proteins: Egg and Egg Products: • Composition o Shell, 11% of egg ? Calcium carbonate ? Prevents microbes from entering and moisture from leaving ? Protection o Yolk, 31% of egg ? 1/3 of the egg ? ? the calories Contains LECITHIN: responsible for emulsification o Egg whites, 58% of egg ? 2/3 of the egg ? Half the protein • Types o Globular o Fibrillar o Conjugated • Denaturation/coagulation: modifying original state through a process o Mechanical ? Whipping o Chemical ? Acid ? Salt o Heat ? Double boil • Egg foam production o Fat and detergents( interfere…. Make sure bowl is clean of detergent and fat o Freshness; pH o Meringue • Poaching • Custards Egg Gels: Custards: • Baked: Quiche, creme caramel, cheesecake, souffle o Ratio: 1 quart liquid to 6-8 eggs • Stirred: o Creme Anglaise, pastry cream • Frozen: ice cream • Temperatures: coagulation o Whole egg: 156 degrees F White 140-149 degrees F o Yolks 144-158 degrees F o Custard 185 degrees F Handling and Storing: • Store eggs at 45 degrees F or below • Cook shell egg to 145 for 15 sec for immediate service • Cook shell eggs to 155 F for 15 sec for holding and serving Maillard Browning: • Neutral pH • High/dry Heat • Sugars • High Protein PROTEINS: MEATS & SEAFOOD Pros and Cons of Meat Consumption |Pros |Cons | |Quality of protein |Modern diseases | |Nutrients Obesity | |Essential Amino-Acids |Diabetes | | |Heart disease | |Satiating Effect |Animal rights | |Flavor |Cost | |Texture |Land Use | |Maillard Browning | | |Tender & juicy | | Moving toward grass-fed beef, which is lower in fat and safety risk. Meat Trends • Increase in affluence ( increase in meat consumption • Chicken becomes a cheaper option Composition of Meat • Contractile o Muscle fiber (actin & myosin) • Structural/Stromal o Collagen (can be dissolved) o Elastin (usually removed) • Fat o Beef/veal: high in saturated fats o Chicken/pork: relatively high in Unsaturated fats • Pigments (conjugated) o Myoglobin • Hormones & Enzymes (conjugated) o Proteolytic enzymes Specie |Water % |Protein % |Fat % | |Beef |70 |18 |12 | |Pork |48 |13 |39 | |Chicken Breast |70 |21 |9 | |Fish |66 |29 |5 |
Muscle Structure o As animal ages, more structural protein and collagen develop o Consists of nucleus and fiber bundles o Actin and myosin are closer together when muscle contracts Reactions in Meat 1. Slaugther 2. Rigor Mortis a. Muscles stiffen… acto-myosin complex (two layers of protein stacked together) forms b. Water loss c. Meat becomes tough and dry d. pH DROP 3. Aging/Ripening a. Muscle relaxation b. Enzyme activity (PROTEOLYSIS) i. Enzymes break down muscle strands and flavor development occurs c. Increased water absorption d. Flavor development as a result of enzyme activity and muscle relaxation 4. Spoilage a. Greenish color b.
Off-odors c. PHOSPORESCENT (when flavor development goes too far) pH Decline Postmortem o Pork (very susceptible to stress) o Rapid pH decrease o Increase in water loss o PSE (Pale, Soft, Exuclative) o No good maillard browning o Beef o DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) Meat Properties & Reactions o Tenderness o COLLAGEN: increases as animal ages o HYDROLYSIS ? Needs to occur if there is collagen ? Need water (moist cooking method) o Tenderization… more needed for lower quality meats ? Mechanical: mallet, grinder ? Chemical • PAPAIN (papaya enzyme) • BROMELAIN (pineapple enzyme) • FICIN (fig enzyme) ? Aging ? Heat o Flavor o Maillard browning o Physiological age Moisture: bound vs. free water o Denaturation o Temperature & time/speed ? LT – LT (Low Temp, Long Time) • More tenderness • Beneficial method o Hydrolysis o Protein hardening (overheated) o Lipolysis: breakdown of fat o White vs. dark meat o White has LESS myoglobin in muscle o The searing question: searing does NOT contain juices o Carry-over effect o Continues to cook due to high heat from exterior… take meat out EARLIER Doneness of Meat o Beef o Rare must be +110F o Well done up to 175F o Pork: 145F o Veal: 130F – 170F o Lamb: 120F – 175F o Chicken o MUST BE WELL DONE o 165F Effect of Oxygen on Color o Meat starts browning when exposed to oxygen Myoglobin (purplish-red) + Oxygenated Oxygen = Oxymyoglobin (bright red) o Oxymyoglobin + Oxidized Oxygen = Metmyoglobin (brownish-red) Poultry o More age = more flavor o Style o RTC: Ready To Cook o RTE: Ready To Eat o Type: fresh/frozen o Quality Designation/Grade o A o B o Procurement Grade (not every bird is inspected) o WOG (WithOut Giblet)… no liver, heart, stomach, neck etc. that have high count of microorganisms o Longer-shelf life o Less risk of foodborne illness Seafood & Nutrition o Protein o Easy to digest o High nutritional value o Little connective tissue o Fat o Omega-3 fatty acids o Unsaturated fatty acids o Micro-macro nutrients o High in minerals, vitamins, iodine Fish Type o Low-Fat: cod, flounder, halibut, snapper, tuna Moderately-fatty: bluefish, catfish, salmon (pink, coho), shark, trout o High-fat: salmon (Atlantic, King), Chilean sea bass, herring, mackerel, eel Seafood Supply o Seafood consumption increasing slowly o Over-fishing/harvesting leading to endangered species… PRICE INCREASE o Increased fishing technology and aqua-culture (farm-raised fish) Classification o Mollusks o Bi-valves: mussels, oysters, clams… want to see them open (sign of life) o Univalves: conch, whelk o Cephalopods: squid, cuttlefish o Fin fish o Reef-fish: tilefish, striped bass o Ground-fish: flounder, halibut… CLOSE TO BOTTOM OF OCEAN o Pelagic fish: tuna, swordfish… NEAR OCEAN SURFACE o Crustaceans: lobster, shrimp, crayfish … need to shed shell to grow Structure Sheets of collagen easily dissolve, accounting for the flakiness of the fish o Muscle fibers/spans are much shorter o Sheets of fine collagen in between fibers o Muscle = myocomma o Shortness causes muscle spans/fibers to separate when cooked… GAPING o White & dark muscles o White: FAST muscle cells ? Uses glycogen to convert fat into energy o Dark: SLOW muscle cells ? Endurance muscles needed ? Oxygen is needed to convert fat into energy Lobster o Uncooked lobster is black because of protein complex and pigments o Heat denatures protein complex and ASTAXANTHIN (pigment) is released to make it red. Freshness of Fish o Eye should be o Clear o Bulging o Wet Not too strong of a smell o Springs back when pushed o Gills are red and moist o Inside shouldn’t be slimy PROTEINS: UTILIZATION & RELATED MICROORGANISMS/FOOD SAFETY Quality Grading (USDA) o Prime o Choice o Select o Pork: 1 – 5 o Benefits of prime quality o Marbling o Age/maturity o Conformation (looks more tender) o Diet (grain-fed animals’ meat is more marbled) o Better the yield grade… o Better for you o More usable parts o Less fats Seafood Inspection o Voluntary o Fee-based o Done by Department of Commerce o Impossible to inspect prior to slaughtering Beef/Veal/Lamb Parts & Cooking Method o Dry-cooking (15% – 20% water loss) o Tenderloin o Rib-eye Striploin o Moist-cooking (3% – 5% water loss) o Chuck o Shoulder o Tenderized (mechanical/chemical) o Shank o Plate o Skirt Fish Market Forms o Whole/Round: nothing done to it o Drawn: intestines taken out o Dressed/Pan-dressed: fins and head taken off o Filets: Filets taken out Storage & Handling o Keep whole fish in ICE o Two containers so juices can drip down o Regularly change ice o FIFO inventory method Seafood Cookery Fat conten o t: more fat, more flavor o Grilling/broiling: need good amount of fat o Steaming/poaching o Doneness/time: less time to cook due to less connective tissue Foodborne Illness LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES o Type: bacterium Characteristics: facultative (can grow with or without oxygen), psychroduric (resists freezing) o Illness: infection o Onset Time: 3 – 70 days o Duration: indefinite o Sources: Soil, water, humans, animals (intestinal tracts) o Symptoms: fever, vomiting, diarrhea, flu-like symptoms o Foods: unpasteurized milk/products, raw vegetables, poultry, seafood, meats (HOT DOGS) o Prevention: monitor cooking temps, avoid x-contamination, use only pasteurized milk SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING E COLI o Type: bacterium o Characteristics: facultative, psychrophilic, survives low pH, entero-toxin o Illness: toxin mediated infection o Onset Time: 3 – 4 days o Duration: 2 – 9 days o Sources: animals, intestinal tract of cattle & humans Symptoms: watery&bloody diarrhea, kidney failure, death o Foods: undercooked ground beef (meat is taken from various parts of the animal and MO can be easily incorporated), cheese, unpasteurized milk, juice, lettuce, unchlorinated water o Prevention: cook beef to 155F for 15 sec, avoid x-contamination, personal hygiene CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI (2nd PLACE) o Type: bacterium o Characteristics: survive cold temps o Illness: toxin mediated infection o Onset Time: 2 – 5 days o Duration: 2 – 5 days o Sources: domestic/farm/wild animals. PETS o Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, vomit, muscle pain o Foods: unpasteurized dairy products, raw poultry, unchlorinated or fecal contaminated water o Prevention: Cook beef to 155F for 15 sec, avoid x-contamination, personal hygiene CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS o Type: bacterium Characteristics: SPORE-FORMER, facultative, MESOPHILE o Illness: toxin-mediated infection o Onset Time: 8 – 22 hours o Duration: 24 hours o Sources: Humans, animals, fecal contaminated soil o Symptoms: abdominal pain, dehydration, explosive diarrhea o Foods: meat, cooked poultry, stews, sauces, improperly cooked beans o Prevention: TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLED COOLING & REHEATING, +135F for hot VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS AND VULNIFICUS o Type: bacterium o Characteristics: common in warmer months o Illness: toxin-mediated infection o Onset Time: 4 – 96 hours (V. P. ), 12hrs – days (V. V. ) o Duration: 1 – 8 days (V. P. ), days – weeks (V. V. ) Sources: oysters & shellfish, shrimp, lobster, seafood from GULF OF MEXICO o Symptoms: diarrhea, chills, blistering skin lesions, septicemia (blood poisoning), death within days in immuno-compromised people o Prevention: avoid eating undercooked/raw seafood, avoid x-contamination, buy from approved sources CIGUATERA o Type: toxin o Characteristics: heat stable o Illness: intoxication o Onset Time: 2 – 16 hours o Duration: 1 – 2weeks o Source: tropical reef fish o Symptoms: gastro-intestinal & nerve block, numbness, itching of mouth/hands/feet o Food: amberjack, barracuda, grouper, snapper… comes from food that eat algae SCOMBROID o Type: toxin o Characteristics: heat stable o Illness: intoxication o Symptoms: allergic reaction, swelling, headache o Source: histamine (dark fleshed fish) o Food: tuna, mackerel, bluefish, mahi-mahi PSP/RED TIDE o Type: toxin o Characteristics: 70% heat stable o Illness: intoxication o Symptoms: nerves Food: oysters, clams, mussels TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS o Characteristics: roundworm o Illness: infection, trichnosis o Onset Time: 2 – 28days o Duration: several days – 30 days o Source: domestic pigs, wild game, boars, bears o Symptoms: nausea, diarrhea, swelling around the eyes, muscle soreness o Foods: undercooked pork/game, pork and non-pork sausages o Prevention: cook game meats to minimum required temps, wash, rinse & sanitize equipment, personal hygiene, avoid x-contamination, freeze meat ANISAKIS SIMPLEX o Characteristics: roundworm o Illness: infection o Onset Time: hours – weeks o Duration: varies widely o Sources: raw/undercooked fish/squid/octopus Symptoms: abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting o Prevention: cook fish thoroughly, freeze fish at -4F for 30 days SHIGELLA SPP. • Characteristics: facultative anaerobic; highly contagious • Illness: infection • Onset Time: 1 – 7 days • Duration: 1 – 7 days/varies • Sources: humans, primates (intestinal tract) • Symptoms: Dysentery (excreting mucus and intestine lining), death (immuno-compromised people) • Foods: ALL FOODS; raw, cooked, dairy, meats… • Prevention: monitor cooking temps, avoid x-contamination, NO FOOD CONTACT FOR DIAGNOSED PEOPLE, MUST BE REPORTED TO HEALTH DEPARTMENT Minimum Internal Cooking Temp for Ground Meats o 145F: 3 minutes o 150F: 1 minute 155F: 15 seconds o 158F: 1 second PEST MANAGEMENT Common Pests o Mice o Rates o Cockroaches o Flies (carry salmonella and other bacteria) Fighting Pests o Air curtains o Self-closing doors o Floors: white stripe 6” off the wall… easier to see pests and droppings on white background o Store food at least SIX INCHES OFF FROM FLOOR o Screens o SWAT team Integrated Pest Management (IPM) o Deny access to facility o Deny food, water, & hiding/nesting places o Work with licensed & registered PCO eliminating pests Restaurant Inspection o Purpose o Clean environment and food o Ensure public health and safety o Who: trained inspectors o When o Whenever they want Usually middle of service because that is when people cut corners o How o Show ID o Stand and watch o Report o Tell establishment what to fix When Establishment Has to Close Down o Immediate health hazard: staph, hepatitis A, and shigella are communicable o Loss of electricity or water o Structural damage Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) o Reasons o Risk assessment o Risk reduction o How to control o Prevention o Minimum temp o Rapid cooling o Food handling process o Continuous system: total time in danger zone o Seven principles a. Conduct hazard analysis i. Biological ii. Chemical iii. Physical b. Determine CCP: where are the hazardous points? c.
Establish critical limits i. Temp ii. Time iii. Storage d. Establish monitoring procedures e. Establish corrective actions f. Establish verification process i. Cleaning ii. Temp log iii. Standard recipe g. Establish record keeping and documentation EDIBLE SCIENCE Scientifically Advanced Foods o Ice cream & sorbet o Mayo o Whipped cream o Distilled spirits Techniques and Products o Fermentation: bread, butter, coffee o Emulsions/foams: mayo, meringue o Freezing: ice cream, sorbet o Gelation: tofu, cheese, jell-o o Distillation: brandy, rosewater o Crystallization: sugar, chocolate o Extrusion: pasta, fruit loops o Drum drying: kool-aid, instant potato Mincing: surimi Sodium Alginate o Gum from kelp used as thickener & gelling agent o Polymer (long chain of molecules) of mannuronic & guluronic acids (natural sugar acids o Forms gels with proteins or calcium ions o Remains stable when warmed o Fruit Juice + sodium alginate + calcium chloride solution = SOLIDIFICATION on outside layer polyphenoloxidase Transglutaminase (Meat Glue) o PERMANENTLY BINDS PROTEIN MOLECULES TOGETHER o Forms gels from dissolved/semi-gelled proteins o Often used in surimi o Cross-link between glutamine and lysine o Steps o Spring transglutaminase powder o Press foods together o Refrigerate for 4 – 24 hours o Cook Xanthan Gum Food additive, polysaccharide, rheology control substance o Fermented product o Vegan o No calories o Thickener o Not sensitive to pH CHEESE & DAIRY PRODUCTS Mozzarella production • 88F • Milk • Citric acid: pH difference • Enzyme: RENNET o Coagulates o Needs lower pH for enzyme to work History and consumption • First food: mammals and humans • Provides necessary nutrients: balance of proteins, minerals & carbs • Fosters rapid growth • Cheese making: 4000 BC • Pasteurization: 19th century Sources of milk • Cow o Most common o Highest output o Calving: perpetual pregnancy • Sheep & goat o Low output o Specialty cheese • Water buffalo Milk Protein: Casein Micelle Protective sheathing around it o Charge that repels each other o Difficult to coagulate o Add acid for easier coagulation • Clustered proteins Milk Processing • Pasteurization method o A: 145F for 30min o B: 160F for 15sec o C: 280F for 2sec ( UHT milk… (Ultra High Temperature) • Homogenizing – fat globules are reduced and dispersed permanently – ensures consistency, white color, and taste – prevents fat clumps, and layer of cream – Fat no longer aggregates and is evenly distributed • Milkfat Removal – use centrifuge to remove portion, or all of fat – must still have same nutritional value and vitamins after fat removal Concentrated Milks use vacuum to remove water from whole milk, leaving milkfat and milk solids, extended shelf life – evaporated milk: remove 60% of water, canned and heat sterilized, no refrigeration until opened – sweetened condensed milk: remove 60% of water, contains 40-45% sugar, used for desserts – dry milk powder: removing all moisture from pasteurized milk, no prevents MO growth and greatly increased shelf life Classification of cream – must have at least 18% fat, more viscous than milk – half and half= mix of whole milk and cream – light cream, coffee/table cream= baked goods, soups, coffee, cereal – light whipping cream= thickening, foam for desserts – heavy cream= pasteurized, rarely homogenized Whipped cream • Air bubbles formed by spreading fat around the bubbles • Thin film of milk protein and fat requires low temp • Voluminous whipped cream collapses if it gets too warm Cultured Dairy Products add specific bacteria to turn lactose into lactic acid ( new body, flavor and stops MO growth – buttermilk= bacteria (streptococcus lactis) to pasteurized skim/lowfat milk – sour cream= bacteria (streptococcus lactis) to pasteurized, homogenized light cream – cream fraiche= add buttermilk to heavy cream – yogurt= milk and 2 types of bacteria Butter – produced by agitating, churning cream – at least 80% milkfat • Air • Water and milk protein • Crystalline fat • Free fat – European-style= more milkfat and little/no salt – whipped= incorporate air into butter – clarified= remove water and milk solids Margarine= NOT A DAIRY PRODUCT – made from animal/vegetable fats using hydrogenation Clumping of milk protein: adding heat and bacteria to milk protein increases clump formation… tiny particles group together to form clump Rind= surface of cheese natural rind= caused by bacteria (bloomy rind) or washing with brine (washed brine) – wax rind= inedible, prevent moisture loss – FRESH CHEESE = NO RIND Cheese Moisture and Fat – good indication of texture and shelf life – higher moisture= softer and more perishable – low-moisture= can last a couple of weeks, reduced water activity prohibits MO growth – high fat= creamier and richer flavor Cheddar cheese production 1. Add starter bacterium and rennet (enzyme) to pasteurized milk (if milk is not pasteurized, cheese has to be aged for at least 60 days) 2. Allow milk to curdle and set 3. Cut and remove whey 4. Cook and further remove whey 5. Mat and cheddar 6.
Mill and salt 7. Press 8. Cure and ripen Classification of cheeses • By production method o Acid set o Rennet set o Heat & acid set o Pasta filata • By concentration of moisture o Very hard- aged and dried (30% moisture), good for grating (lose flavor quickly) – parmesan, asiago o Hard- not hard or brittle, can be either close-textured and flaky or dense, holey – swiss, cheddar, gruyere, Monterey jack, provolone o Semi-soft- mild and buttery, smooth and sliceable textures – gorgonzola, havarti, roquefort o Soft- thin skin and creamy center, ripen quickly, at their peak for a short time – brie, camembert Fresh/Unripened- uncooked and unripened, highly perishable, mild and creamy – cream cheese, mozzarella, ricotta o Spreadable cheese (cream, cottage)- both fresh cheeses Processed Cheeses – Pasteurized processed= aged/green cheese, flavorings, and emulsifiers, less expensive, longer shelf life, will not age or ripen, easy to make consistently, less protein/vitamins/minerals than regular cheese – Processed cheese food= less natural cheese and more moisture than regular processed cheese, add oils to make it smooth and spreadable – Imitation cheese= dairy/soy by-products and emulsifiers, flavorings, enzymes, dense/rubbery and little flavor without salt Serving Cheeses – Northern Europe= breakfast – Great Britain= lunch flavor (besides fresh cheeses) best at room temperature – precut cheeses will dry out quickly Cheese ripening • Ripen throughout with original starter bacteria • Discrete veins of mold • Form the surface with molds and bacteria EVALUATING THE DINING PRODUCTION Pre-arrival/arrival • Advertising/media presentation • Reservation: phone/online • Location • Signage • Physical appearance • Parking/valet • Grounds • Entrance • INITIAL GREETING • Seating • Service Physical environment • Interior design • Flowers/plants • Comfort: temp, ventilation, noise • Restrooms • Table top • China, glassware, silverware • Physical representation of menu & wine list Dining & Food • Appearance Temperature • Menu variety • Creativity • Dietary & nutritional concerns • Specialty dishes • Cooked-to-order • Accuracy of substitutions and requests • Timing in between courses • Price/value relationship Service • Warmth • Attentiveness • Technical competency • Attire • Cleanliness of staff Beverage • Spirits • Wine list • Hot beverages • Beer • Water: different types Post dining • Check payment: accuracy, ability to transfer and split the bill, legibility • Departure timing • CC processing Exit Cooking Methods Dry: involves fat/just heat involved • Frying • Grilling • Baking Moist: involves water • Steaming • Boiling • Blanching • Simmering